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What’s the Community Layer?


What makes the web potential are network-to-network connections. The “community layer” takes half in finishing up the web communications course of and makes these connections potential to ship and obtain the info packets between totally different networks.

Within the 7-layer OSI mannequin, which we are going to talk about later, the community layer comes at no. 3. One of many predominant protocols used at this layer is the Web Protocol (IP), together with quite a few different routing, testing, and encryption protocols.

What’s the community layer and the way does it work?

A bunch of two or extra interlinked computing units known as a community. All units within the community are sometimes linked to a central hub, reminiscent of a router.

A community can even have subnetworks or smaller sections of the community. This sub-networking makes it simpler for giant networks to handle 1000’s of IP addresses and linked units, like these offered by ISPs.

The Web could be taken as an enormous community of smaller networks. There are thousands and thousands of computer systems interlinked inside networks, after which these networks are linked to different networks. By way of this kinking course of, these computer systems are linked with one another whatever the distance in between.

Each course of in interworking connections is carried out on the community layer. These embody route setting of knowledge packets, inspecting whether or not a server is lively on a distinct community, and bearing in mind and receiving IP knowledge packets from different networks.

Crucial of all is that this final course of, as the vast majority of the web site visitors is directed by way of IP.

What’s a community layer instance?

Suppose John and Anna are linked to a typical native space community (LAN), and John needs to speak with Anna. Because of the reality each are linked to the identical community, John can ship the message on to Anna’s pc.

Nevertheless, if Anna is linked to a different LAN, positioned miles away, John’s message should attain Anna’s community first earlier than it seems on her pc, which is a community layer course of.

What are the 7 layers of the community? – OSI mannequin

The Open Methods Interconnection (OSI) mannequin defines how the web works. This mannequin divides the procedures concerned to ship knowledge by way of seven layers over the Web.

Every community layer operate is specified for getting ready the info to be transmitted by way of cables, wires, and radio waves within the type of bits.

It’s pertinent to say that the OSI mannequin is a nonfigurative conceptualization of the procedures that makes the Web work, and inferring the mannequin and making use of it to the real-world web generally is a subjective course of.

The OSI mannequin helps individuals speak about networking {hardware} and protocols, defining which protocols can be utilized by which {hardware} and software program, and offers a tough thought of how the Web works. Nevertheless, it isn’t an rigid step-wise definition of how Web connections often work.

Under are the seven layers of the OSI mannequin.

Layer 7. Software layer: The primary protocol used at this community layer within the OSI mannequin is HTTP. It includes the info generated by and usable by software program apps.

Layer 6. Presentation layer: Rework knowledge into an application-acceptable format. Some specialists consider that HTTPS is encrypted and decrypted at this layer.

Layer 5. Session layer: Manages connections between computer systems (this will also be managed on the 4th layer by TCP Protocol).

Layer 4. Transport layer: Supplies the carriers to switch knowledge and management the service high quality between the 2 linked events. The main protocols used at this layer are UDP and TCP.

Layer 3. Community layer: Manages knowledge routing and transmission between numerous networks. Probably the most important protocols listed here are ICMP and IP.

Layer 2. Knowledge hyperlink layer: Manages communications between totally different units linked to the identical community. If let’s assume, layer 3 is the deal with on a mail, then layer 2 is like representing the home or workplace quantity at that deal with. Probably the most generally used protocol right here is Ethernet.

Layer 1. Bodily layer: Knowledge packets are remodeled into radio, optical, or electrical alerts and unfold as bits (the smallest potential models of data) by way of wires, cables, or radio waves.

OSI mannequin vs. TCP/IP mannequin

The TCP/IP mannequin is a substitute mannequin of how the web operates. It divides the associated processes into 4 layers fairly than seven and makes use of totally different network-layer protocols.

Whereas some argue that the TCP/IP mannequin higher displays how the Web works immediately, nonetheless the OSI mannequin is broadly used to know the Web. Each of those fashions have their very own execs and cons.

The 4 layers of the TCP/IP mannequin are given under.

Layer 4. Software Layer: Virtually similar to layer 7 of the OSI mannequin.

Layer 3. Transport Layer: Resembles with layer 4 of the OSI mannequin.

Layer 2. Web Layer: Resembles with layer 3 of the OSI mannequin.

Layer 1. Community Entry Layer: Syndicates the processes at layers 1 and a pair of within the OSI mannequin.

You should be questioning the place are layers 5 and 6 of the OSI mannequin within the TCP/IP mannequin. Some sources consider that the processes at layers 5 and 6 within the OSI mannequin both are now not wanted in immediately’s Web or really match into layers 7 and 4 (denoted as layers 4 and three within the TCP/IP mannequin).

For instance, you may suppose OSI layer 5, “classes” is pointless as a result of TCP protocol opens and retains classes at OSI layer 4, and it doesn’t seem within the TCP/IP mannequin.

Additionally, HTTPS encryption and decryption could be considered an utility layer course of (OSI layer 7 or TCP/IP layer 4) fairly than a presentation layer course of (OSI layer 6).

What’s the distinction between the ‘community’ layer and the ‘Web’ layer?

There isn’t a “community” layer Within the TCP/IP mannequin. The layer within the community of the OSI mannequin virtually resembles the Web layer within the TCP/IP mannequin. Within the OSI mannequin, layer 3 is the community layer whereas, within the TCP/IP mannequin, the Web layer is layer 2.

In different phrases, each layers are two names of comparable issues, however they arrive from totally different fashions of web operation.


Probably the most important protocol used at layer 3 is IP or Web Protocol. It’s a normal for routing packets throughout totally different networks on the web.

A community packet is a small chunk of knowledge despatched over Transmission Management Protocol/Web Protocol (TCP/IP) networks. A packet has two components, a header, and a physique.

The community layer is split into two sublayers, a routing layer that handles the switch of knowledge packets from supply to vacation spot, and an encapsulation layer that handles forming of packets.

Just like the bodily and MAC layers, it’s a part of the infrastructure layer of the IoT reference structure. This layer is liable for addressing and routing knowledge packets.


On this article, we seemed on the community layer. We now have additionally mentioned the protocols on the community layer to make you well-versed with the totally different layers within the TCP/IP and OSI mannequin, the distinction between the ‘community’ layer and the ‘Web’ layer, and the OSI mannequin vs. the TCP/IP mannequin as a complete.



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